Environment Perception Architecture using Images and 3D Data

H. Florea, R. Varga, S. Nedevschi

Proceedings of 2018 14th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Computer Communication and Processing (ICCP), Cluj-Napoca, Romania, September 7-9, 2018, pp. 223-228.

This paper discusses the architecture of an environment perception system for autonomous vehicles. The modules of the system are described briefly and we focus on important changes in the architecture that enable: decoupling of data acquisition from data processing; synchronous data processing; parallel computation on GPU and multiple CPU cores; efficient data passing using pointers; adaptive architecture capable of working with different number of sensors. The experimental results compare execution times before and after the proposed optimizations. We achieve a 10 Hz frame rate for an object detection system working with 4 cameras and 4 LIDAR point clouds.

pdf

A Fast RANSAC Based Approach for Computing the Orientation of Obstacles in Traffic Scenes

F. Oniga, S. Nedevschi

Proceedings of 2018 14th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Computer Communication and Processing (ICCP), Cluj-Napoca, Romania, September 7-9, 2018, pp. 209-214.

A low complexity approach for computing the orientation of 3D obstacles, detected from lidar data, is proposed in this paper. The proposed method takes as input obstacles represented as cuboids without orientation (aligned with the reference frame). Each cuboid contains a cluster of obstacle locations (discrete grid cells). First, for each obstacle, the boundaries that are visible for the perception system are selected. A model consisting of two perpendicular lines is fitted to the set of boundary cells, one for each presumed visible side. The main dominant line is computed with a RANSAC approach. Then, the second line is searched, using a constraint of perpendicularity on the dominant line. The existence of the second line is used to validate the orientation. Finally, additional criteria are proposed to select the best orientation based on the free area of the cuboid (on top view) that is visible to the perception system.

pdf

Real-Time Stereo Reconstruction Failure Detection and Correction Using Deep Learning

V.C. Miclea, S. Nedevschi, L. Miclea

Proceedings of 2018 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC), Maui, Hawaii, USA, November 4-7, 2018, pp. 1095-1102.

This paper introduces a stereo reconstruction method that besides producing accurate results in real-time, is capable to detect and conceal possible failures caused by one of the cameras. A classification of stereo camera sensor faults is initially introduced, the most common types of defects being highlighted. We next present a stereo camera failure detection method in which various additional checks are being introduced, with respect to the aforementioned error classification. Furthermore, we propose a novel error correction method based on CNNs (convolutional neural networks) that is capable of generating reliable disparity maps by using prior information provided by semantic segmentation in conjunction with the last available disparity. We highlight the efficiency of our approach by evaluating its performance in various driving scenarios and show that it produces accurate disparities on images from Kitti stereo and raw datasets while running in real-time on a regular GPU.

pdf

Modular Sensor Fusion for Semantic Segmentation

Hermann Blum, Abel Gawel, Roland Siegwart and Cesar Cadena

IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) 2018

Sensor fusion is a fundamental process in robotic systems as it extends the perceptual range and increases robustness in real-world operations. Current multi-sensor deep learning based semantic segmentation approaches do not provide robustness to under-performing classes in one modality, or require a specific architecture with access to the full aligned multi-sensor training data. In this work, we analyze statistical fusion approaches for semantic segmentation that overcome these drawbacks while keeping a competitive performance. The studied approaches are modular by construction, allowing to have different training sets per modality and only a much smaller subset is needed to calibrate the statistical models. We evaluate a range of statistical fusion approaches and report their performance against state-of-the-art baselines on both real-world and simulated data. In our experiments, the approach improves performance in IoU over the best single modality segmentation results by up to 5%. We make all implementations and configurations publicly available.

pdf   code

@inproceedings{blum2018fusion, 
Title = {Modular Sensor Fusion for Semantic Segmentation},
Author = {Blum, H. and Gawel, A. and Siegwart, R. and Cadena, C.},
Fullauthor = {Blum, Hermann and Gawel, Abel and Siegwart, Roland and Cadena, Cesar},
Booktitle = {2018 {IEEE/RSJ} International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems ({IROS})}, 
Month = {October},
Year = {2018},
}

Fusion Scheme for Semantic and Instance-level Segmentation

Arthur Daniel Costea, Andra Petrovai, Sergiu Nedevschi

Proceedings of 2018 IEEE 21th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2018), Maui, Hawaii, USA, 4-7 Nov. 2018, pp. 3469-3475

A powerful scene understanding can be achieved by combining the tasks of semantic segmentation and instance level recognition. Considering that these tasks are complementary, we propose a multi-objective fusion scheme which leverages the capabilities of each task: pixel level semantic segmentation performs well in background classification and delimiting foreground objects from background, while instance level segmentation excels in recognizing and classifying objects as a whole. We use a fully convolutional residual network together with a feature pyramid network in order to achieve both semantic segmentation and Mask R-CNN based instance level recognition. We introduce a novel heuristic fusion approach for panoptic segmentation. The instance and semantic segmentation output of the network is fused into a panoptic segmentation based on object sub-category class and instance propagation guidance by semantic segmentation for more general classes. The proposed solution achieves significant improvements in semantic object segmentation and object mask boundaries refinement at low computational costs.

pdf

Map Management for Efficient Long-Term Visual Localization in Outdoor Environments

Mathias Buerki, Marcyn Dymczyk, Igor Gilitschenski, Cesar Cadena, Roland Siegwart, and Juan Nieto

IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) 2018

We present a complete map management process for a visual localization system designed for multi-vehicle long-term operations in resource constrained outdoor environments. Outdoor visual localization generates large amounts of data that need to be incorporated into a lifelong visual map in order to allow localization at all times and under all appearance conditions. Processing these large quantities of data is nontrivial, as it is subject to limited computational and storage capabilities both on the vehicle and on the mapping back-end. We address this problem with a two-fold map update paradigm capable of, either, adding new visual cues to the map, or updating co-observation statistics. The former, in combination with offline map summarization techniques, allows enhancing the appearance coverage of the lifelong map while keeping the map size limited. On the other hand, the latter is able to significantly boost the appearance-based landmark selection for efficient online localization without incurring any additional computational or storage burden. Our evaluation in challenging outdoor conditions shows that our proposed map management process allows building and maintaining maps for precise visual localization over long time spans in a tractable and scalable fashion

pdf   video

@inproceedings{BuerkiIV2018,
Title = {Map Management for Efficient Long-Term Visual Localization in Outdoor Environments},
Author = {M. Buerki and M. Dymczyk and I. Gilitschenski and C. Cadena and R. Siegwart and J. Nieto},
Fullauthor = {Mathias Buerki and Marcyn Dymczyk and Igor Gilitschenski and Cesar Cadena and Roland Siegwart and Juan Nieto},
Booktitle = {{IEEE} Intelligent Vehicles Symposium ({IV})},
Month = {June},
Year = {2018},
}

maplab: An Open Framework for Research in Visual-inertial Mapping and Localization

Thomas Schneider, Marcin Dymczyk, Marius Fehr, Kevin Egger, Simon Lynen, Igor Gilitschenski and Roland Siegwart

IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 2018

Robust and accurate visual-inertial estimation is crucial to many of today’s challenges in robotics. Being able to localize against a prior map and obtain accurate and drift-free pose estimates can push the applicability of such systems even further. Most of the currently available solutions, however, either focus on a single session use-case, lack localization capabilities or an end-to-end pipeline. We believe that by combining state-of-the-art algorithms, scalable multi-session mapping tools, and a flexible user interface, we can create an efficient research platform. We believe that only a complete system, combining state-of-the-art algorithms, scalable multi-session mapping tools, and a flexible user interface, can become an efficient research platform. We therefore present maplab, an open, research-oriented visual-inertial mapping framework for processing and manipulating multi-session maps, written in C++. On the one hand, maplab can be seen as a ready-to-use visual-inertial mapping and localization system. On the other hand, maplab provides the research community with a collection of multi-session mapping tools that include map merging, visual-inertial batch optimization, and loop closure. Furthermore, it includes an online frontend that can create visual-inertial maps and also track a global drift-free pose within a localization map. In this paper, we present the system architecture, five use-cases, and evaluations of the system on public datasets. The source code of maplab is freely available for the benefit of the robotics research community.

pdf

@article{schneider2018maplab, 
title={maplab: An Open Framework for Research in Visual-inertial Mapping and Localization}, 
author={T. Schneider and M. T. Dymczyk and M. Fehr and K. Egger and S. Lynen and I. Gilitschenski and R. Siegwart}, 
journal={{IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters}}, 
year={2018} 
}